The Department of Animal & Avian Sciences Campus Farm Revitalization Project The University of Maryland College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Shorb Lecture

 

The 2013 Shorb Lecture

This year's Shorb Lecture "Pathogenesis of Diabetic Complications: Bad to the Bone" will be delivered by Dr. Lawrence C. B. Chan on October 21, 2013 at 4:00 p.m. in the Stamp Student Union, Grand Ballroom Lounge (room 1209), with a reception at 3:15-4:00 p.m.

Dr. Lawrence Chan is Professor of Medicine, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, as well as Molecular and Human Genetics at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX (https://www.bcm.edu/departments/medicine/diabetes-endocrinology/?pmid=1189). He is the Betty Rutherford Chair for Diabetes Research and the director of the NIH-funded Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Center. Dr. Chan is also the Chief of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism as well as the director of the Molecular Medicine Scholars Program at Baylor College of Medicine.

Dr. Chan is recognized as a preeminent investigator in the development of novel therapies in diabetes, and an authority in the genetics of atherosclerosis and lipid disorders. Dr. Chan's laboratory is active in the following research areas: (1) type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, (2) lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, and (3) somatic gene therapy and other molecular therapies for the treatment of diabetes and obesity.

Dr. Mary Shaw Shorb (1907-1990)
A key contributor to the discovery of Vitamin B12

Faculty Member from 1949 - 1972
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences - Poultry Science

History

Mary Shorb's reputation rests on her key studies that led to the discovery of vitamin B12, the last vitamin to be discovered. Prior to 1926, 50,000 patients were dying annually in the U.S. from pernicious anemia, a disease caused by malabsorption of vitamin B12. Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor secretion in the stomach, a protein required for vitamin B12 absorption. In 1926, it was found that raw liver was an effective, albeit distasteful, treatment for pernicious anemia. However the amount of raw liver required was nearly one pound daily. This led to the pursuit by several pharmaceutical firms to isolate the anti-pernicious anemia factor in liver.

After joining the Bureau of Dairy Industry USDA at Beltsville as a microbiologist in 1944, Mary began work with the bacteria, Lactobacillus lactis Dorner (LLD). LLD was being used to make yogurt and other cultured dairy products. Mary developed a microbiological assay for LLD that required tomato juice and liver extract in the culture medium. No one knew why the culture required liver extract. Mary suggested that the LLD assay could be used for isolation of the anti-pernicious anemia factor in liver.

Left without a job at USDA after the return of male scientists who were veterans from World War II, Mary was provided an unpaid position and laboratory space in the Poultry Science Department at the University of Maryland. In 1947, Mary was provided with an initial $400 grant to develop the LLD assay in a collaborative project with Karl Folkers from Merck. The LLD assay allowed for rapid isolation of the anti-pernicious anemia factor that led to the purification and characterization of Vitamin B12 by Karl Folkers and coworkers at Merck in 1948 (read Folkers memoirs). For this discovery, Mary Shorb and Karl Folkers were co-recipients of the Mead Johnson Award from the American Society of Nutritional Sciences in 1949.

Mary Shorb grew up in North Dakota (Biography from Maryland Commission for Women). After graduating from the College of Idaho, she obtained a Sc.D. in Immunology from Johns Hopkins University in 1933. During her time at the University of Maryland as a volunteer, she developed the LLD assay for the quantitative determination of Vitamin B12. Subsequently, Dr. Shorb was appointed as a Professor at the University of Maryland, in the College of Agriculture from 1949 to 1972. An endowment from Merck was established in 1968 to honor and perpetuate her legacy through the annual Mary Shorb Lectureship in Nutrition at The University of Maryland.

(also read Biography by Ahrens RA. J Nutr. 1993;123:791-796)

Honors

  • 1988 Century Scientist Award, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Centennial Celebration
  • 1988 Woman of the Year Award, Prince Georges County, Maryland
  • 1987 Inducted Maryland Woman's Hall of Fame
  • 1978 Honorary Degree of Science, College of Idaho
  • 1966 Distinguished Alumnus Award, College of Idaho
  • 1957 Sigma Xi Research Award
  • 1951 Outstanding Woman of the Year, Hood College
  • 1949 Mead Johnson Award of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences
  • 1948 Hematology Research Foundation Award

Publications

  1. Shorb, M. S. (1947). Unidentified Essential Growth Factors for Lactobacillus-Lactis Found in Refined Liver Extracts and in Certain Natural Materials. Journal of Bacteriology 53, 669-669 (Download PDF)
  2. Shorb, M. S. (1947). Unidentified Growth Factors for Lactobacillus Lactis in Refined Liver Extracts. Journal of Biological Chemistry 169, 455-456 (Download PDF)
  3. Shorb, M. S., and Briggs, G. M. (1948). The Effect of Dissociation in Lactobacillus-Lactis Cultures on the Requirement for Vitamin-B12. Journal of Biological Chemistry 176, 1463-1464 (Download PDF).
  4. Shorb, M. S. (1948). Activity of Vitamin-B12 for the Growth of Lactobacillus-Lactis. Science 107, 397-398 (Download PDF).
  5. Menge, H., Combs, G. F., and Shorb, M. S. (1949). Evidence for an Unidentified Chick Growth Factor in the Presence of Vitamin-B12. Poultry Science 28, 775-775.
  6. Bishop, R. W., Shorb, M. S., and Pelczar, M. J. (1952). Evidence for an Unidentified Growth Factor Required by Microbacterium - Flavum. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 81, 407-410.
  7. Menge, H., Combs, G. F., Hsu, P. T., and Shorb, M. S. (1952). Unidentified Growth Factors Required by Chicks and Poults .1. Studies with Chicks Using Purified Diets. Poultry Science 31, 237-247.
  8. Romoser, G. L., Shorb, M. S., Combs, G. F., and Pelczar, M. J. (1952). Effect of Antibiotics and Diet Composition on Cecal Bacteria and Growth of Chicks. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy 2, 42-50.
  9. Romoser, G. L., Shorb, M. S., and Combs, G. F. (1952). Studies on Mechanism of Antibiotics in Promoting Chick Growth. Poultry Science 31, 932-932.
  10. Shorb, M. S. (1952). Growth-Promoting Activity of L-Lyxoflavin for Lactobacillus-Lactis. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 79, 611-614.
  11. Romoser, G. L., Shorb, M. S., and Combs, G. F. (1953). Effect of Orally Administered Penicillin-Resistant Microorganisms on Growth of Chicks. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 83, 17-21.
  12. Shorb, M. S., and Veltre, F. A. (1953). Properties of an Unidentified Growth Factor for Lactobacillus-Bifidus Isolated from Chicks and Poults. Poultry Science 32, 924-924.
  13. Veltre, F. A., Shorb, M. S., and Pelczar, M. J. (1953). Nutritional Requirements of Lactobacillus-Bifidus Isolated from Poults and Chicks. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 83, 284-286.
  14. Shorb, M. S., and Veltre, F. A. (1954). Distribution and Properties of an Unidentified Growth Factor for Avian Lactobacillus-Bifidus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 86, 140-145.
  15. Shorb, M. S., Hansen, M. L., and Sowter, D. D. (1954). The Effect of Arsenicals on Cecal Bacteria from Chicks. Poultry Science 33, 1080-1081.
  16. Arscott, G. H., Shorb, M. S., and Boggs, U. (1955). Effect of Vitamin-B12 and Antimetabolites of Vitamin-B12 on Chick Hatchability. Poultry Science 34, 986-988.
  17. Boggs, U., and Shorb, M. S. (1956). The Toxicity of 1, 2-Dichloro-4, 5-Diaminobenzene and Benzimidazole Analogues for Chick Embryonic Development and Partial Reversal by Vitamin-B12. Poultry Science 35, 1133-1133.
  18. Blackwood, U. B., and Shorb, M. S. (1958). Relationship of Vitamin-B12 to 1,2-Dichloro-4,5-Diaminobenzene and 2-Ethyl-5-Methylbenzimidazole in the Chick Embryo. Poultry Science 37, 1185-1186.
  19. Blackwood, U. B., and Shorb, M. S. (1958). Lethal Effect of Certain Benzimidazoles and Benzenes on Early Chick Embryo. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 99, 232-235.
  20. Shorb, M. S., and Lund, P. G. (1958). Fatty Acid and Other Requirements of Trichomonas-Gallinae. Journal of Protozoology 5, 15-16.
  21. Wilcox, F. H., and Shorb, M. S. (1958). The Effect of Antibiotics on Bacteria in Semen and on Motility and Fertilizing Ability of Chicken Spermatozoa. American Journal of Veterinary Research 19, 945-949.
  22. Shorb, M. S., and Lund, P. G. (1959). Requirement of Trichomonads for Unidentified Growth Factors, Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal of Protozoology 6, 122-130.
  23. Lund, P. G., and Shorb, M. S. (1960). Steroid Requirements of Trichomonads. Journal of Protozoology 7, 5-6.
  24. Shorb, M. S., Walker, H. M., and Keene, O. D. (1960). Lack of Effect of Egg Yolk in the Diet on the Development of Rous Sarcoma in the Chick. Poultry Science 39, 409-417.
  25. Lund, P. G., and Shorb, M. S. (1962). Steroid Requirements of Trichomonads. Journal of Protozoology 9, 151- .
  26. Norman, A., and Shorb, M. S. (1962). In Vitro Formation of Deoxycholic and Lithocholic Acid by Human Intestinal Microorganisms. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 110, 552- .
  27. Pollard, W. O., Shorb, M. S., and Creek, R. D. (1963). Alkaline Phosphatase, Feathering and Bone Ash in Chicks as Affected by Hemin. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 112, 478-480.
  28. Pollard, W. O., Shorb, M. S., and Creek, R. D. (1963). Histology of Osteodystrophy in Hemin Treated Chicks. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 112, 480-483.
  29. Shorb, M. S., Pollard, W., Vasaitis, V., Lund, P. G., and Smith, C. (1963). Effect of Thalidomide Treatment of Hens on Embryonic Development and Fertility. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 113, 619- .
  30. Pollard, W. O., Shorb, M. S., Lund, P. G., and Vasaitis, V. (1964). Effect of Triparanol on Synthesis of Fatty Acids by Tetrahymena Pyriformis. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 116, 539- .
  31. Shorb, M. S., Pollard, W. O., and Dunlap, B. (1964). Squalene Non-Sponifiable Component in Tetrahymena Pyriformis Inhibited with Triparanol. Journal of Protozoology 11, 25- .
  32. Shorb, D. A., and Shorb, M. S. (1964). Lipids of Male + Female Swine Kidney Worm Stephanurus Dentatus. Journal of Parasitology 50, 56- .
  33. Shorb, M. S., Dunlap, B. E., and Pollard, W. O. (1965). Effect of Triparanol on Synthesis of Squalene and Tetrahymanol by Tetrahymena Pyriformis. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 118, 1140- .
  34. Knuese, W. R., and Shorb, M. S. (1966). Light Induced Changes in Tetrahymena Pyriformis. Journal of Protozoology S 13, 12- .
  35. Lund, P. G., and Shorb, M. S. (1966). Growth of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum Strain J without Serum. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 121, 1070- .
  36. Shorb, M. S., Knuese, W. R., and Pollard, W. O. (1966). Lipid Synthesis in Tetrahymena. Journal of Protozoology S 13, 12- .
  37. Lund, P. G., and Shorb, M. S. (1967). Lipoic Acid Requirement of Mycoplasma Species Avian Strain J. Journal of Bacteriology 94, 279- .
  38. Fulk, W. K., and Shorb, M. S. (1970). Production of an Artifact During Methanolysis of Lipids by Boron Trifluoride-Methanol. Journal of Lipid Research 11, 276- .
  39. Knuese, W., and Shorb, M. S. (1971). Lipids of Male and Female Ascaridia-Galli at Different Ages. Journal of Parasitology 57, 840-

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